During the last couple of years, Baltic researchers have been involved in several other projects that Nordic Energy Research has initiated and funded, among which are the comprehensive reports Baltic Energy Technology Scenarios and Transport Statistical Data and Projections in The Baltic States Application of additional measures is recommended to avoid the decrease of power output. An important area of common ground is district heating and cooling. This thesis includes an analysis on how present structures in the German energy system impact the implementation of this novel technology and derives in this context drivers and barriers with regards to its adoption.
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Requirements applied to generators and voltage regulators 1 [Repealed — RT I37, — entered into force Upon determining the ceiling voltage other requirements applied to voltage control shall also be taken into account.
Upon designing an excitation system, it must be taken into account that the requirements to ceiling voltage shall be satisfied also during close network faults. In addition to automatic control, an excitation system shall enable to control the excitation current manually. It must be possible to limit the output signal of the damper and the settings of the limitation shall be adjustable. Different control means may be applied depending on the reactive power output or the power factor.
The use of the control system shall be approved by the transmission network operator.
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The system operator shall evaluate the drop. Application of additional measures is recommended to avoid the decrease of power output.
The output power may decrease, if stable operation at full power can be restored when the frequency drops below In this case, the generator must switch over to auxiliary load.
The generator shall be disconnected with as long a time-delay as the equipment enables. The generator must be able to operate on auxiliary load for at least one hour. The requirement concerning operating on auxiliary load is not applicable to wind turbines, wind farms and asynchronous generators.
The system operator shall evaluate the reduction. The operation time within the frequency range of In exceptional cases the time for the elimination may extend to 0. If faults occur in kV and 11kV networks, they shall be eliminated in 0. Such faults must not cause damages to power plant equipment.
A generator and its auxiliary devices must withstand voltage variations, which do not prevent safe switching over to auxiliary load after disconnection from the network. This requirement is not applicable to wind turbines and wind farms. Requirements applied to the power control devices 1 The power plant must have speed controllers of turbines and the relevant control systems.
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In this case, the generator supplies only the auxiliary devices of the power plant and the plant must operate at least for one hour. The requirement specified in this subsection is not applicable to wind turbines, wind farms and asynchronous generators. Disconnected power plants enable to control the power in accordance with the orders of the system operator in order to restore the power system unity by resynchronisation.
Verification of conformity of generating installations to the requirements 1 The producer shall verify regularly the conformity of the generating installations of the power plant to the requirements established by this Regulation, starting from the commissioning to the end of their utilisation period.
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The producer shall determine the frequency of verifications proceeding from the technical state of the system and notify the system operator thereof. The measurement results of tests concerning the generating installation shall be capable of assuring proven traceability. The tests concerning the network shall be agreed with the system operator.
Upon agreement with the system operator the tests may be partially substituted by imitation on a calculation model. An important area of common ground is district heating and cooling. District heating and cooling networks are widespread in most Nordic and Baltic countries.
The coupling of the common Nordic-Baltic electricity market to local district heating via power-to-heat, offers large comparative advantages with respect to flexibility of source, potential synergies, and economic considerations.
My RT allows for:
It also facilitates the deployment of renewable energy, decarbonization of the electricity and heat sectors, as well as ensures a cost-effective energy supply.
This report illustrates the considerable potential and benefits of using heat pumps and electric boilers, which are promising options for curbing climate-warming emissions and developing the heating- and cooling markets in the Baltic countries.
I hope that this report sheds light on the possibilities associated with heat pumps and highlights their significance for the green transition in the Nordic-Baltic region.