The syntactic agreement of the participle component of the predicate is less likely than the syntactic agreement of the finite verb; the semantic agreement of the adjective predicate is in its turn more likely than the semantic agreement of the participle, and, finally, the semantic agreement of the nominal predicative is more likely than the syntactic agreement of the adjective predicative. Substantiivsed kvantorid käituvad põhiarvude taoliselt, kuid neil puudub arvuühildumine, nt enamik mehi - enamiku meeste. Thus, in the case of the verbal predicate one cannot speak of one definite tendency. Nimisõnad muutuvad käändes ja arvus, pole võimalik moodustada võrdlusastmeid ega sti- ja lt-tuletisi, eeslaiendiks on atribuut, kuid ei saa olla intensikaatorit. Indiana University Publications. Laenasin neile raha The boys were here.
Clip — vt eelmine, kuid üleulatuvad osad lõigatakse ära. Void-Clip — vt. If the cell is shared, then the tags mayno longer be unique.
When working in DWG workmode, however,tags can be attached only to shared cells. When working in standard MicroStation, you can create cells withtags both independent and associated. When these cells are thenplaced in a model, the independent tags automatically becomeassociated to the cell and adopt their visibility setting Display Tagsettingwhich is set when the tag is defined. When working in DWG workmode, you cannot create new cellsthat contain tags.
To put a tag in a cell, you must associate it with ashared cell. See rakendus sisaldab ka isikliku ala, kus saab luua isikliku sõnaloendeid ja viktoriine, pideva praktika.
Inglise sõnastik kirjed hõlmata sünonüüme, näiteks lauseid, seotud fraasid ja heli häälduse emakeele kõneleja poolt. Jeeves will meet his castle at the employer. Jeeves will meet his employer at the castle. Jeeves will meet his employer. Predikaadid ja argumendid 10 1.
Maigret will imitate Poirot. Bertie will abandon the race. Miss Marple will reconstruct the crime. PP ei ole obligatoorne, vaid kirjeldab viisi, aega, kohta. Selliseid moodustajaid nimetatakse adjunktideks. Midagi on puudu. Hercule is dithering.
Wooster gave Jeeves the money. Verbide klassitseerimine nende kohustuslike argumentide järgi. Valentsi all olevad komplemendid on aktandid.
Verbide valents võib olla nullist kolmeni.
ESTONIAN: TYPOLOGICAL STUDIES III
Valents 1. Kõneleja aevastas. Laps magab. Nad vaatasid jalgpallivõistlust. Oskar Luts on kirjanik. The boss oered her a better salay. Hägusus 1. Kalev suitsetab piipu. Elli ootab sõpra. Mart istus diivanile. Tähenduse muutus 1. Peeter loeb raamatut. Peeter loeb Priitu oma sõbraks. A mp imitate maigret, Poirot Intransitiivne verb Maigret stumbled. Hercule bought Jane a detective story.
Hercule bought a detective story. Jeeves is envious of Bertie. The structural distance of the adjective adverbial from its controller is even greater than that of the predicative, AGMAT BININER VARIANNID, one would expect even a higher degree of semantic motivation! However, as the predicative adverbial, especially in the translative, remains also in the case of the plural controller mostly in the singular, then perhaps it would be more correct to speak also in the case of coordinate constructions and quantified expressions about incongruity rather than the singular that is conditioned by the singular form of the controller.
Thus, it will remain an open question whether the agreement of the predicative adverbial is more or less semantically motivated than the agreement of the 34 Agreement in Estonian 35 predicative.
- Schlumberger Stock Options
- Suletud susteemi kaubandus
- ESTONIAN: TYPOLOGICAL STUDIES III - PDF Free Download
However, it is clear that in comparison with the verbal predicate the semanticity of the agreement of the predicative adverbial is higher because, as in the case of the predicative, the predicative adverbial will remain in the singular in the case of the politeness plural as well.
The relative pronoun and its correlate belong to different clauses, therefore one would expect a high degree of semanticity of its agreement.
Unfortunately, as we could see, the ratio of AGMAT BININER VARIANNID cases is very small, and therefore the data do not enable us to draw any conclusions about the degree of semantic motivation of agreement. Judging by my own linguistic competence, it is quite possible to use the plural in the case of the coordinate and quantified constructions: 70 Jüri ja Peeter, kelledelt ma auto ostsin.
Jüri and Peeter from whom I bought a car. Two men from whom I bought a car. The structural distance of personal and demonstrative pronouns from their source of agreement is greatest, and the use of the plural is fully semantically motivated.
Nad~need on minu vanad sõbrad.
Arabic English Translator, Dictionary & Learning
Jüri and Peeter came to visit us. They are old friends of ours. Nad~need olid mulle abiks isegi maja ehitamisel. My two good friends have helped me a lot. They helped me even build the house. So, despite some sketchiness of the statistical data and the difficulty in deciding on certain occasions whether it is syntactic agreement or incongruity, it seems that Corbett s hierarchies AGMAT BININER VARIANNID largely valid in the case of Estonian number agreement as well 2.
Some trends in the number agreement of Estonian Next we will take a look at what has happened to number agreement during this century. Can we identify here any more general tendencies, for example, a general expansion of number agreement and its development toward greater syntacticity? As we could see in the case of the adjective attribute, it is really so that agreement has expanded both in the case of the categories of case and number.
It is impossible to state whether there has been a shift toward greater syntacticity or semanticity because nobody has studied how often constructions of the type armsad Jüri ja Mari dear Jüri and Mari and ilusad kaks maja two beautiful houses have been used.
In the case of the verbal predicate we can observe a shift toward greater syntacticity of agreement. According to the corpus of the literary languages in the s Table 3at the end of the previous century the plural forms of the subject expressed by a collective noun Tootajate aktsiate pikaajaline kapitalikasum. Then followed a break when the people were in the schoolyard in order to carry on with the celebration in the open air.
As late as in the s Johannes Aavik considered it necessary to point it out in his prescriptive grammar 82 that Also such utterances as rahvas räägivad pro räägib people are talking should be avoided although such plurals can be found in popular dialects. Nowadays the plural forms of collective nouns that function as controllers are absolutely impossible, which again indicates that agreement has become more syntactic. Nowadays the greater syntacticity of verb agreement is also indicated by the fact that the use of the plural in the case of quantified phrases has clearly decreased cf.
Table 3. Nevertheless, in the case of coordinate constructions that consist of singular members the use of the plural has increased considerably, which, in contrast, AGMAT BININER VARIANNID to a shift toward semantic agreement.
Thus, in the case of the verbal predicate one cannot speak of one definite tendency. Agreement of the predicate verb Õ sg pi sg pi quant, expr. Changes in the agreement of the predicative adverbial can be observed only in the translative case because the essive case had not been firmly established as yet at the end of the previous century.
Süntaksiteooriad ja -mudelid MTAT
Table 4 shows that one can observe an increase in the agreement for the translative, i. At the same time agreement has become more syntactic as the use of the plural on ebaseaduslik kauplemine binaaromides decreased in the case of the coordinate construction.
Number agreement of the adjective predicative adverbial in the translative case sg pl sg pl pl A very clear change in the use of the relative pronoun kes 'w ho in the course of this century is characterized by Table 5 in addition to the plural controller, it takes also into account conjoined noun phrases and quantified expressions : Table 5.
Number agreement of the relative pronoun kes who Ö sg pl sg p] 88 Thus, the development of number agreement in Estonian indicates both increase and decrease.
A clear increase in number agreement has taken place in the case of the adjective AGMAT BININER VARIANNID and the predicative adverbial. Both of them represent casedomain agreement. At the same time agreement has decreased in the case of relative pronouns, thus in the domain of person agreement. Such a development in agreement is a logical continuation, on the one hand, to the development of the Balto- Finnic adjective attribute from the incongruous one into the congruous one, and, on the other hand, to the decrease of person agreement of the verb as a sub-case of person-domain agreement see also Rätsep In addition to the increase and decrease in agreement, one can observe that agreement has become more syntactic.
Zweiter Theil: Satzlehre. Alvre, Paul Omastusliitelistest määrsõnadest eesti kirjakeeles ja murdeis. Agreement Patterns in Slavic. The Pennsylvania State University Press. Corbett, Greville G. Stanford University. Case Marking and Direct Objects. Tallinn, AGMAT BININER VARIANNID, Mati Relative words in Estonian relative clauses.
Tartu, Hermann, Karl August Eesti keele grammatik. Hornung Johann Grammatica Esthonica. Riga, Hupei, August Wilhelm Ehstnische Sprachlehre ftir beide Hauptdialekte, den revalschen und den dörptschen; nebst einem vollständingen Wörterbuch.
Kettunen, Lauri Lauseliikmed eesti keeles. Laanest, Arvo Sissejuhatus läänemeresoome keeltesse. Michael Barlow, Charles Ferguson eds. Lyons, John Introduction to theoretical linguistics.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Moravcsik, Edith Agreement. Greenberg ed. Tuletusja lauseõpetus. Neetar, Helmi Aluse ja öeldise ühildumine eesti murretes.
Agreement is a very common phenomenon in the languages of the world, therefore no theory of syntax can avoid it.
MS Nevis, Joel. Oinas, Felix J. Indiana University Publications.